stooges of the Kremlin

Wings Over Scotland


Posted on January 02, 1968 by

For off-topic chat. Duh.

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    34143 to “Off-topic”

    1. Smallaxe says:

      Hi Tinto,
      One World One People One Love

      I’ve been in la-la land for a few days,

      “I’m the Urban Spaceman”

      Trust you to pick the Isosolese wan!

    2. CameronB Brodie says:

      @Paul Sinclair

      Re. consistency, with regard to politics and power.

      Studies in Public Opinion

      CHAPTER 12

      A Consistency Theory of Public Opinion and Political Choice: The Hypothesis of Menu Dependence

      ….The spine of this account is the concept of consistency. As with many social science terms, the concept of consistency is inconsistently used. In the context of research on public opinion and political choice, a trio of meanings can be distinguished. Consistency can be a synonym for constraint. Construed as constraint, consistency indexes the predictability of citizens’ position on one issue given their positions on another.1 Then again, consistency can be a synonym for stability. Construed as stability, consistency indexes the predictability of citizens’ positions on an issue at one point in time given their positions on the same issue at an earlier point in time. Finally, consistency can be a synonym for congruence. Construed as congruence, consistency indexes the predictability of positions citizens take on specific issues given their general political orientations.2

      Empirically, this trio-constraint, stability, congruence-is broadly related. The more tightly constrained citizens’ positions across issues, the more stable their positions are likely to be over time; and the more stable and tightly constrained their positions, the more likely they are to be congruent with underlying basic orientations. The premise of the theory we present is thus that the first two senses of consistency are causally parasitic on the third. Positions tend to be constrained across issues or stable over time to the extent they are congruent with basic political orientations. And just so far as citizens possess basic political orientations together with the competence to call them into play, a consistency theory of public opinion has a causal leg to stand on….

      Attitude Consistency

      Attitude–Behavior Consistency

    3. Smallaxe says:

      “War/No More Trouble” Playing for Change/Song Around The World;

      Selassie I…Rastafari…I’n’I

    4. Thepnr says:

      I’m getting ready to settle in for the World Cup final. I’m a big supporter of Croatia, I worked with a team of Croatians in Turkmenistan more than 20 years ago and have always admired them as a people.

      Visited Zagreb, Split and Zadar a couple of years ago, great places, very friendly people and great value as well as nice weather even in October. Highly recommended.

      I’d love to be there today. C’mon the Croats!

    5. Smallaxe says:

      “Where There Is Love” Playing For Change;

      Hi, Thepnr.

    6. Thepnr says:

      Meant to add Croatia is a beautiful country with a number of fantastic National Parks and probably the best preserved Roman architecture outside of Italy (take note Tinto) 🙂

      Some might say it’s like Scotland with lots of Sun 🙂

    7. Thepnr says:

      Hi Smallaxe

      Liked the Playing for Change version of Imagine this morning, kinda nice and peaceful tune for a Sunday morning. Cheers!

    8. Smallaxe says:

      You’re welcome, Pnr.

      Hi Cameron, this one is for you;

    9. Smallaxe says:


      Now you can learn all the words.
      Croatian national football (soccer) fans anthem;

    10. CameronB Brodie says:

      Re. Archibald Maule Ramsay. With regard to consistency of political opinion, antisemitism is closely linked to racism and authoritarianism. Both common character traits of your common-all-garden Tory.

      Nazi indoctrination and anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany


      Attempts at modifying public opinions, attitudes, and beliefs range from advertising and schooling to “brainwashing.” Their effectiveness is highly controversial. We demonstrate that Nazi indoctrination––with its singular focus on fostering racial hatred––was highly effective. Germans who grew up under the Nazi regime are much more anti-Semitic today than those born before or after that period. These findings demonstrate that beliefs can be modified massively through policy intervention. We also show that it was probably Nazi schooling that was most effective, and not radio or cinema propaganda. Where schooling could tap into preexisting prejudices, indoctrination was particularly strong. This suggests that confirmation bias may play an important role in intensifying attitudes toward minorities.

      Keywords: cultural transmission, indoctrination, persistence, anti-Semitism


      Attempts at modifying public opinions, attitudes, and beliefs range from advertising and schooling to “brainwashing.” Their effectiveness is highly controversial. In this paper, we use survey data on anti-Semitic beliefs and attitudes in a representative sample of Germans surveyed in 1996 and 2006 to show that Nazi indoctrination––with its singular focus on fostering racial hatred––was highly effective. Between 1933 and 1945, young Germans were exposed to anti-Semitic ideology in schools, in the (extracurricular) Hitler Youth, and through radio, print, and film. As a result, Germans who grew up under the Nazi regime are much more anti-Semitic than those born before or after that period: the share of committed anti-Semites, who answer a host of questions about attitudes toward Jews in an extreme fashion, is 2–3 times higher than in the population as a whole. Results also hold for average beliefs, and not just the share of extremists; average views of Jews are much more negative among those born in the 1920s and 1930s. Nazi indoctrination was most effective where it could tap into preexisting prejudices; those born in districts that supported anti-Semitic parties before 1914 show the greatest increases in anti-Jewish attitudes. These findings demonstrate the extent to which beliefs can be modified through policy intervention. We also identify parameters amplifying the effectiveness of such measures, such as preexisting prejudices.

      The Evolutionary Psychology of Anti-Semitism
      Hate has deep roots

      The Radical Right and Antisemitism

    11. Thepnr says:


      They’re good at football, singing and dancing not so much 🙂

      Spotted a link when I watched your video, it’s a promotion for Croatia looks good though and importantly it looks real as that was at least my experience of the country. Worth a watch. Anyway kick off beckons živjeli.

    12. CameronB Brodie says:

      Perhaps one day. 😉

      Leroy Sibbles – Express Yourself

    13. Thepnr says:


    14. Cactus says:

      Good day. That’s the Trumps away and Croatia are taking on France at the footy, aye understand it’s currently 1-1.

      Mon the blacks.

    15. Cactus says:

      Thunder n lightening at the final!

    16. Cactus says:

      “Football is ‘better together’ at the co-op”

      Listen out in the second half.

      Ha ha ha ha ha!

      Ah’ve heard commentators/adverts say that statement throughout the World Cup… have you?

      We’re in unofficial indyref2 campaign mode, apparently.

    17. Smallaxe says:


      I’m a writer which is another way of saying I live in my own strange fantasy world.

      Social Distortion:”Story of My Life”

      Start today!

    18. Thepnr says:

      Amazing, that’s the end of that dream for Croatia who have played better than France. Still no bad for a wee country in getting there in the first place.

    19. CameronB Brodie says:

      @Tom Watson
      You appear to be a British nationalist, which I suspect is largely due to an internalisation of English culturalism. That is not an uncommon social pathology in Scotland, as contemporary Scottish media presents reality in terms that are consistent with British nationalist ideology. Contemporary British nationalism is an expansionist form of English nationalism.

      Toward a study of culture suitable for (Frontiers in) cultural psychology

      “The mutual constitution of culture and mind is a topic of central importance across all of areas of psychology.” With this mission statement, Frontiers in Cultural Psychology declares mutual constitution—the process by which mind and culture “live together, require each other, and dynamically, dialectically, and jointly make each other up” (Shweder, 1990; p.1)—as the unifying theme of its otherwise diverse contributions. Implicit in this theme is a non-essentialist understanding of both culture and mind. One direction of this dynamic process refers to the cultural constitution of mind. Mind is not simply an expression of genetic blueprint; instead, it emerges through active participation in and ongoing engagement with sociocultural affordances present in the structure of everyday worlds1. The other direction of this dynamic process refers to the psychological constitution of cultural worlds.

      Cultural worlds and their particular affordances do not exist apart from human activity; instead, they persist (or not) because people in the ongoing flow of everyday life actively select and (re)produce features—and de-select others—that resonate with their particular beliefs and desires. Among other examples, this dynamic conception of culture and mind is evident in work that considers the mutual constitution of moral understandings and sleeping practices (Shweder et al., 1995); motivational orientations and constructions of success and failure situations (Kitayama et al., 1997); affective orientations and children’s books (Tsai et al., 2007); personal identity and societal master narratives (Hammack, 2011); or national identity and constructions of history (Carretero, 2011).

      Despite this non-essentialist vision, much of the work that carries the label of cultural psychology continues to reflect and reproduce problematic reifications of culture and self (see Hermans and Kempen, 1998; Adams and Markus, 2004; Gjerde, 2004; Hammack, 2011). One could identify many examples to illustrate this point. The particular case that provoked the present commentary is an article by Mojaverian et al. (2013)….

      Indoctrination, Communicative Teaching and Recognition – Studies in Critical Theory and Democracy in Education

      The problem of indoctrination,with a focus on moral education

    20. Smallaxe says:

      I know nothing about football, I don’t even own a football bat but did I not hear a lot of people saying that It’s coming home?

      We are the Champions;

      It’s staying in the EU.

    21. Cactus says:

      Congratulations to the people of France, for your country winning the World Cup Football 2018!

      Les Ripoux Referee:

      Party on France. 🙂

    22. CameronB Brodie says:

      That’s what Scotland voted for and I hope Westminster doesn’t consider me a second class human. 😉

      Foo Fighters – All My Life

    23. Tinto Chiel says:

      @Thepnr 3.26: am fully aware, mom vieux. Croatia is a lovely country with a beautiful coastline and pristine waters. Was there last year. Its greatest resource is its people, with a fierce independence and self-belief we can only marvel at.

      Ironically, while visiting my Aged Neighbour, I heard our weaselly Vichy Vision asking how a nation of a mere 4.3 million could get to a cup final, and implicitly putting the boot into our country again.

      Oh, the irony: the answer is independence and an independent mind, quizmasters.

      Even an essentially partitioned country like Bosnia manages to exist with three currencies and three separate governments. And Montenegro is mainly mountainous with limited access to the sea.

      For a Scot (as I’m sure you will have felt), foreign travel is painful: all these countries with much, much less than Scotland yet we, arguably the earliest kingdom in Europe, are dragged down by the quicksand of a Union which was founded on bribes and menaces and a massive democratic deficit from the start.

      Ooh, I could crush a Blairgowrie raspberry, soon to be known as a British Blairgowrie raspberry.

      “Weasels, rip my flesh,” he Zappa’ed.

    24. Smallaxe says:


      A wee bit of the French National Anthem;

      And four other guys.

    25. Fred says:

      The best team lost!

    26. Smallaxe says:


      There is only one class of human, the others are dancer (puppets);

    27. Cactus says:

      Indeed Smallaxe, may aye contribute one further…

      Oh SO long, Harry Kane:

      And laugh about it all again.

      Ye can shove yer gboot.

      He he he. 😉

    28. Thepnr says:

      @Tinto Chiel

      I think that’s the main difference between Scottish and Croatian people, their 100% self belief in Croatia’s ability to be a nation is evident everywhere in that small country.

      We’re only half way there due to all the baggage too many have collected due to 300 years of English subjugation.

      The cringe doesn’t exist in Croatia, just enormous pride in their country. It even shows in their football as they never give in.

    29. Smallaxe says:


      How did you get up there?^


      I know which generation I’d like to be.

    30. CameronB Brodie says:

      I think the subjugation eased off at the start of the 20th century, before morphing into a more socially acceptable, outwardly benign, form of ethnic oppression. Where’s ma tomahawk? 🙂

    31. Tinto Chiel says:

      @Thepnr and Smallaxe: you have summed it all nicely, Sages of Wings/Urim and Thummin/Fran and Anna de nos jours und so weiter.

      Why the feck can’t Scots see they’ve been humped for three hundred and eleven years while their pockets get picked?

      I will post a Sorley MacLean poem some time to ease my angst.

      I’m too sensitive for this world…..

    32. CameronB Brodie says:

      Re. ethnic oppression. Culture is an expression of ethnicity. Where is the political recognition of Scotland’s expressed cultural difference to England, especially re. Brexit? Nowhere that I see.

      Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?


      Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed.

      Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

      Keywords: causal learning and reasoning, causal beliefs, causal model theory, lay theories of depression, cross-cultural differences

      Cultural Psychology: Studying More Than the ‘Exotic Other’

      Representation and emotion causation: A cultural psychology approach

    33. Tinto Chiel says:

      Indeed, Smallaxe, indeed.

      I’m too pure for this world, but there’s always Gowkthrapple.

    34. Smallaxe says:

      Gowkthrapple, indeed Tinto;

      Did ye luv thon?

    35. Tinto Chiel says:

      It wasn’t Sorley, it was Derick:


      “Culloden, the Disruption,
      and the breaking up of the tack-farms –
      two thirds of our power is violence;
      it is cunning we need.
      When the tempered steel near the edge of the scythe-blade is worn
      throw away the whetstone;
      you have nothing left but soft iron
      unless your intellect has a steel edge that will cut clean.

      And throw away soft words,
      for soon you will have no words left;
      the Tuatha Dè Danann* are underground,
      the Land of the Ever-young is in France,
      and when you reach the Promised Land,
      unless you are on your toes,
      a bland Englishman will meet you,
      and say to you that God, his uncle, has given him a title to the land.”

      * Tuatha Dè Danann, a supernatural race in Ireland, sometimes said to
      be the progenitors of the fairies.

      translated by Derick Thomson

    36. Smallaxe says:


      You’ll like this, there are trees in it!
      “King of the fairies”

      Fairies have got Wings.

    37. Tinto Chiel says:

      “Did ye luv thon?”

      I pure done, Smallaxe, flaneur extraordinaire, but youse hiv omitted the trendy brasseries and boites de nuits wot are to be found all over this trendy nook a ce moment.

      I may expatiate later, should the Muse move me.

    38. Brian Doonthetoon says:

      That documentary about the 51st at St Valery – I found it fair.

      It is currently on CH4+1.

    39. Tinto Chiel says:

      Loved thon tree music, Smallaxe. Trees are to be hugged to embrace the life force/Great Spirit but “Elm hateth Man and waiteth.”

      Ya bass.

      I fear hammers, on account of the peom I hiv posted.

      Night, all! *retreats to bosky bower*

    40. Thepnr says:

      @Tinto Chiel

      Don’t fear the hammers, they are for shite poems. Yours was class.

    41. CameronB Brodie says:

      I think this post rounds up a lot of what I’ve been posting recently. Sorry for all the science.

      Critical Cultural Approaches to Gender and Sex

      Summary and Keywords

      Within the field of communication studies, critical cultural scholarship examines the interarticulation of power and culture. Drawing from critical theory and cultural studies, this research offers analysis of texts, artifacts, practices, and institutions in order to understand their potential to promote or preempt equality and social justice. Critical theory, which has Marxist origins, uses theory as a basis for critiquing and challenging systems of domination or oppression. The field of cultural studies focuses on social formations with a particular emphasis on media texts and the reception practices of audiences. Both critical theory and cultural studies emphasize the important interrelationship between ideology, or structures of belief, and the material conditions in which people live. Critical cultural research examines discourse and representation, including language and visual culture, as well as social relations, institutional structures, material practices, economic forces, and various forms of embodiment.

      Central to critical cultural scholarship is attention to the construction, regulation, and contestation of categories of identity, including race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, ability, and class. A significant branch of critical cultural studies examines how ideas about gender and sex develop and circulate, asking how and why some constructions of gender and sex become normative and gain hegemony—or, cultural privilege—in a particular context. For example, such scholarship might critique the idealization of certain performances of masculinity and the attendant devaluation of femininity or other subordinated masculinities; or, this research might consider how particular iterations of masculinity or femininity may be counter-hegemonic, operating in opposition to prevailing ideologies of gender and sex. Critical cultural approaches also emphasize the intersectionality of gender and sex with other categories of identity. For instance, ideas about masculinity or femininity can rarely be separated from assumptions about race and/or sexuality; as such, prevailing ideologies of gender and sex often reflect the presumed normativity of whiteness and heterosexuality.

      Keywords: gender, sex, culture, power, subjectivity, hegemony, ideology, intersectionality, heteronormativity, feminism, feminist, critical theory

      Ideology, Identity, and Intercultural Communication: An Analysis of Differing Academic Conceptions of Cultural Identity

      A non-essentialist model of culture: Implications of identity, agency and structure within multinational/multicultural organizations

    42. Smallaxe says:

      “I may expatiate later, should the Muse move me.”

      Try syrup of figs, Tinto.
      Or this;

      Moving, intit!

    43. Smallaxe says:

      A tribute to all the men and officers of the 51st, my wife’s grandfather (KOSB) was taken prisoner with them after being wounded and spent the rest of the war as a POW.

    44. CameronB Brodie says:

      Here’s one from a man who turned marginalising social stereotypes aimed against his ethnic group, into his USP (universal selling point). I might be weird but I have at least one foot in reality. 😉

      Screamin’ Jay Hawkins – Constipation Blues

    45. CameronB Brodie says:

      universal unique

    46. CameronB Brodie says:

      Culture is in constant flux, reinterpreting and remaking itself. Westminster and British nationalism do not represent my values, nor the rest of Scotland, with specific regard to Brexit. Personally, I don’t fancy the culture that will result from Westminster policy and wish to access inalienable human rights I am currently prevented from accessing, such as the “Right to Development”.

      Grace Jones – Slave To The Rhythm (Remix By Medicine Head)

    47. CameronB Brodie says:

      Of course, one of the most vulnerable and significant targets that the New Right will have in their sights after Brexit, is education policy. They’ve been after it since the 1970’s, as it’s the cradle of national identity and culture. Trouble is, British Labour are also chasing Tory voters in the south of England.

      Ethnic diversity, Christian hegemony and the emergence of multi-faith religious education in the 1970s


      This article provides a detailed reconstruction of the processes leading to the formation of the widely influential Birmingham Agreed Syllabus of Religious Instruction (1975). This is contextualised within one of the most significant periods in the history of race relations in the United Kingdom. The authors discuss how this syllabus, and other landmark reforms in religious education (RE) in English schools from the late 1960s, responded to ethnic diversity by promoting supposedly culturally pluralist, multi-faith approaches to RE, which were subsequently perceived as eroding the Christian foundations of British/English national identity. They argue that the vilification of these curriculum reforms by culturally conservative critics was in fact based on an erroneous assessment of the extent to which these renounced the Christian hegemony of RE. They also critique the assumption that the religious clauses of the 1988 Education Reform Act represented a simple transition from culturally pluralist to assimilationist policies for the subject.

      Keywords: religious education, immigration, assimilation, cultural pluralism

      History teaching, nationhood and politics in England and Wales in the late twentieth century: a historical comparison

      ‘Poisoned history’: a comparative study of nationalism, propaganda and the treatment of war and peace in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century school curriculum

    48. CameronB Brodie says:

      Conservatives are not the same as Tories, who tend to struggle with non-British identities. I doubt folk will have failed to notice that some of them are, in fact, stupendously racist (see the Prime Minister, for example). This is a product of English culture and one that Scotland could do well to distance itself from. 😉

      Faith in history: memory, multiculturalism and the legacies of Empire in postwar England


      This article employs a broad concept of memory in order to examine the reconstruction of the past in various migrant religious and educational settings in the period after 1970. In educational projects designed to promote good community relations, and in attempts to develop non-dogmatic forms of religious belief, British history became the subject of extensive discussion and debate. A small space opened up in which the legacies of British imperial history, so often a matter of visceral feeling, could be publicised, explored and taken seriously. Using case studies from London and Birmingham the article argues that religious groups played a small but important role in enabling new, more inclusive and more critical historical narratives to enter metropolitan British society.

      Keywords: ethnicity, religion, history, identity

      1968—Too Little and Too Late? The Communist Party and Race Relations in the Late 1960s

      ‘The other day I met a constituent of mine’: a theory of anecdotal racism

    49. CameronB Brodie says:

      I wasn’t joking when I suggested Tory brains are wired differently to the majority, but from a right-wing perspective it’s my mind that wired up wrong. And it appears that ideologically minded individuals like to stay in their ideological bubbles. This will need some imaginative thinking to overcome.

      Fear and Anxiety Drive Conservatives’ Political Attitudes
      Can brain differences explain conservatives’ fear-driven political stances?

      Peer-reviewed research shows that conservatives are more sensitive to threat. While this threat-bias can distort reality, fuel irrational fears, and make one more vulnerable to fear-mongering politicians, it could also promote hypervigilance, perhaps making one better prepared to handle an immediate threat….

      At Least Bias Is Bipartisan: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Partisan Bias in Liberals and Conservatives

      Liberals and conservatives are similarly motivated to avoid exposure to one another’s opinions

    50. Cactus says:

      A good mornin’ to you Cameron…

      “This will need some imaginative thinking to overcome.”

      The good news is… we shall overcome.

      Good mornin’ good mornin’ to you too Smallaxe:–WBPBHo

      🙂 😉

    51. Cactus says:

      Upon Yes, Wales and England will be iScotland’s continuing neighbours…

      Politically: Scotland will be independent.
      Geographically: Unchanged, remains the same.

      Independent Scotland is a European and international country.

      And now we’re about to launch into Space too! 🙂

    52. Tinto Chiel says:

      Hi, Smallaxe. I went to bed early for my beauty sleep (so important at my age) and so missed your Weird Al. What a seer the man is! If he were World President there would be a New Dawn.

      I obvs didn’t see the programme about the Highland Division BDTT typed about but my handler and I visited St Valery en Caux a few years ago. The harbour is a bit like one of those small East Neuk ones and it’s surrounded by high cliffs where the Germans could have mounted their 88mm guns so I don’t think there was any real possibility of any evacuation.

      The monuments to the HD on the cliff are very impressive and I took quite a few photos but they were taken with a film camera.

      At least de Gaulle didn’t forget the sacrifice of the division, however cynical Churchill may have been:

      “I can tell you that the comradeship in arms experienced on the battlefield of Abbeville in May and June 1940 between the French armoured division which I had the honour to command and the valiant 51st Highland Division under General Fortune played its part in the decision which I took to continue fighting on the side of the Allies unto the end, no matter what the course of events.”

      I used to be able to Google a much longer speech by him where he praised the Scottish soldiers and made reference to the historic links and alliances between Scotland and France but I’ve been unable to find it again *adjusts tin foil hat to rakish angle*.

      It’s a funny old game, Saint.

    53. Thepnr says:


      If you got a weird “robotic voice” phone call last night then it was my fault, I sent a text message to your home phone by mistake. Eeeek!

    54. Smallaxe says:


      So it was you, I can come out from behind the couch now.

    55. Smallaxe says:


      I meant to leave you this;

    56. Thepnr says:


      Yes sorry 🙂

      Thought I’d better fess up as I knew you’d still be hiding behind the couch this morning.

      A present for you, just this once.

    57. Smallaxe says:


      You find out who your friends are;

    58. Tinto Chiel says:

      @Smallaxe 1018: thanks, I haven’t seen that site before. Had internet probs this morning so late in replying.

      Soffisticates on here might also be interested in “Churchill’s Sacrifice of the Highland Division” by Saul David and “St Valery: The Impossible Odds” by Bil Innes, which recounts the exloits of two Gaelic-speaking sodgers who escaped and made their way back to Scotland via Spain and North Africa.

      Meanwhile, in other news, I’m feeding grated cheese to a baby robin which has appeared in the garden and the sun is shining, so things are fine, apart from the fact that Scotland is still fastened to the dying animal of the UK.

      Yeats, ya bass.

    59. CameronB Brodie says:

      Racists are encouraged to express themselves by the political and media environment they live in. Racists also tend to be authoritarians and are likely to be anti-Semits. As such, it’s important to look back in order to understand the new age of Powellism we appear to be entering.

      Enoch Powell and the Making of Postcolonial Britain

      A belief in hierarchy, Schofield emphasizes, was at the core of Powell’s Toryism. Born into a lower-middle-class family, Powell was particularly attuned to the way in which specific historical institutions, such as university and then the army, created hierarchy, and thereby order, in British society at home and abroad. Race was every bit as central as class to Powell’s conception of hierarchy, evidenced by his enthusiasm for imperial power in India, where he served from 1943 to 1946. Countering characterizations of Powell as a liberal committed to the eventual independence of Indians, Schofield notes his refusal to acknowledge either the ability of Indians to articulate a national community of their own or the reality of anti-colonial sentiment. Becoming a researcher for the Conservative Party after the war, Powell remained so committed to ‘the unique and necessary role of the Englishman in India’ that, when predicting widespread violence in the wake of independence, he recommended martial law as the means by which Britain could reassert authority over the subcontinent (p. 70)….

      To What Extent is Britain Post-Colonial?

      Immigration Manhunts and British Post-Colonial Identity

    60. Thepnr says:

      Have I got a treat for all you lovely friends of Off Topic or what?

      So being at a lose end I’ve spent most of the day extracting every youtube link ever posted on Off Topic from day one, a grand total of 9458. Though many have been played more than once so it is not 9458 individual clips.

      I did this because I was very interested in finding out what were the 10 most played songs and how often they had been played.

      Turns out that it’s actually going to be the top 11 because two songs were tied at number 10. See if any of your own favourites are here 🙂

      So here is the top eleven countdown, 10th equal played 9 times. I remember it well on the run up to the referendum, so will Ian B as he played it first 🙂

    61. Tinto Chiel says:

      @CameronBB: Hakim Adi’s essay is interesting but I can’t think of a time when Britnats felt guilty about their empire. I think it’s at the heart of their world view or weltanschauung as we often say in Cadzow but not after six pints of Guinness and a kebab.

      @Thepnr: I salute your indefatigability. Looking furrit to the rest.

    62. CameronB Brodie says:

      Tinto Chiel
      I’m afraid he might have been talking about academia and public life. Agreed, British nationalists are often ‘culturally chauvanistic’, subjectively defining themselves against the different “other”, who they wish to obscure and exclude. It’s just a pity that racism gets such a culturally approved platform in Britain.

      Comparing British and American conservatisms through the prism of African development


      Conservatism and conservative party politics in Britain and America is associated with neo-colonial attitudes, including pursuit of national interests ahead of post-colonial development. Based on interviews conducted in Washington and London with actors involved with African development, this article examines comparative shifts in conservatives’ engagements from the late Cold War era to the G. W. Bush and Cameron governments. Greater ideological heterogeneity and distinctiveness among American conservative interests groups, combined with a bureaucratic environment in the US allowing more direct channels for ideological input into policy, results in a more clearly conservative stamp on Africa policy in the US than in Britain where ideological lines on development have become more blurred since the 1997 New Labour election victory and the creation of the Department for International Development.

      KEYWORDS: Conservatism, ideology, political parties, Britain, US, development, Africa

      That’s a big effort there Alex, I hope you don’t think it inapropriate of me to follow up with one for the “Hairy Plumber” a.k.a. POTUS. 😉

      Alex Puddu – Bad Love

    63. Thepnr says:

      Right I’m starting again, I’ve changed the rules else Paula Rose has nine of the top ten spots LOL.

      So the new rules are at least TWO people must have played the same song, don’t worry Paula your still in 7 of them 🙂

      In at Number 10 first played coincidently enough by CameronB Brodie and also Paula Rose, john king and Tinto Chiel.

    64. Thepnr says:

      At number 9 in the most played tunes on Off Topic we have a Country & Western number from Paula Rose back in May 2014 and followed up by Smallaxe in March last year.

    65. Thepnr says:

      At number 8 it’s a distinctly Scottish tune again played by both Paula Rose and Smallaxe.

    66. Thepnr says:

      At number 7 it’s pure pop. Played by Paula Rose, Ian Brotherhood, myself and Lucia Daines (who she?)

    67. Thepnr says:

      I’ve already played number 6 as it used to be number 10 before I changed the rules, but for completeness here it is again.

      Two people have played this Ian Brotherhood and me.

      Moving swiftly to number 5 then it’s one I hadn’t seen and BDTT first played it followed by Dave McEwan Hill and Tinto Chiel. Played 10 times overall.

    68. Thepnr says:

      This next song at number 4 has been played a total of 10 times but it has been played by the most number of different posters.

      They were Paula Rose, Oneironaut, BDTT, YesIndyref2, Macart, Tinto and Lucia Daines. I’m sure I’ve played this too but must have been a different link.

      Anyhow number 4 is a catchy tune from 1966, sexy video too 🙂

    69. Thepnr says:

      Down to the top 3 and at number 3 is once again a big favourite of Paula Rose as well as Yesindyref2 and Smallaxe.

      Released in late 1968 it found new acclaim when made part of the soundtrack in the cult film Pulp Fiction.

    70. Thepnr says:

      Number 2 was one I liked, played a total of 15 times the first was in March 2014 by Paula Rose and again by Ian Brotherhood after the referendum in September 2014.

      A classic song from the 70’s showcased by a couple of clowns 🙂

    71. Thepnr says:

      Anybody fancy a guess at what has been the most posted song on Off Topic, a total of 16 times? It’s a tough one mind.

    72. Thepnr says:

      OK here it is the most linked to song ever on Off Topic first played by guess who? Yes Paula Rose and also Ian Brotherhood.

      The song is good but I love the video, bit of nostalgia when hankering after my youth 🙂

    73. Brian Doonthetoon says:

      That’s a fair amount of work you put in there, Thepnr.


      How about the “one hit wonders”, ie only posted once by anybody? (You must have time on your hands…)


    74. Brian Doonthetoon says:

      Hi Thepnr (again!).

      I have a hunch this could be right up your farmtrack…

    75. Tinto Chiel says:

      Would never have guessed that one, Thepnr. Can’t remember even hearing it here.

      Thanks for all your Alan Freemaning.

    76. Lucia Daines says:

      OMG Paula and I are pogoing round the room – so very happy.

    77. Thepnr says:

      @Brian Doonthetoon

      There are 7,294 links that have only been played once which is pretty good going I think. Just shows the diversity of choices made be Wingers 🙂

    78. Thepnr says:

      @Lucia Daines

      I love to make people happy enjoy Lucia, I see you got a couple in the top ten as well 🙂

    79. Thepnr says:

      @Tinto Chiel

      The number one song was last posted on Off Topic in January this year. Nobody ever opens every link LOL.

    80. Brian Doonthetoon says:

      I promised Smallaxe months, nay M-O-N-T-H-S, ago, that once I had uploaded a particular track to YouTube, I would stick a link in ‘off-topic’, in advance of 25th January.

      I knew I had the single in my hovelhold but couldn’t find it.

      Onnyhoo, around a month ago, I found the bag it was in but, unfortunately, it was in a bag that I had fallen against, when I tripped on a cable trailing over my drawing room floor and was in many pieces.

      Therefore, I consulted t’interweb. I think I was able to buy the only 7″ version on the web but, as a bonus, was able to purchase what appeared to be the only 12″ version (on blue vinyl) available on the web.

      I’ve just checked; it’s still not on YouTube. It’s by a Scottish artiste and I will try to put a video together before 25th January next year.

      What a tease eh um, umma?

      “On 25th of Jan each year, Scotsmen remember full of cheer…”

    81. CameronB Brodie says:

      Can I just squeeze this in, ta. Re. the availability of affordable housing.

      Delivering affordable housing in troubled times
      Scotland national report

      February 2011

      An assessment of alternative ways to fund new affordable housing in Scotland at a time when public resources for housing are being significantly reduced.

      2 The credit crunch and Scottish affordable housing

      The traumatic unwinding of the credit crunch and its aftermath has been fully told in several places (e.g. Adair et al., 2009; Cassidy, 2009; Gamble, 2009; O’Sullivan and Gibb, 2008; Shiller, 2008). Here we focus on the UK and Scottish Government responses. The chapter also looks at the medium-term public finance impacts in a devolved context and what this means for affordable housing….

      Affordable Housing Need in Scotland
      Summary Report – September 2015

      Housing Policy in Scotland since Devolution: Divergence, Crisis, Integration and Opportunity

    82. Thepnr says:

      @Brian Doonthetoon

      Northern Soul wasn’t really my thing, I was just crap at the dancing though I did try to look the part at the few occasions I went to an all nighter at the Marryat Hall even bought a pair of “spoons” hoping to fit in LOL.

      Teezers was more my thing and it’s where I met my wife 🙂

    83. Smallaxe says:


      Thanks for all that, for a’ that an’ a’ that;

      We shall prevail!

    84. Brian Doonthetoon says:

      Hi Thepnr.

      I DJ’d in Teasers from January 1980 to September 1980, on Sunday evenings. I was interviewed by Tayside Police about the Templeton Woods murder, which happened the week before my first gig.

      “Spirit Of Radio” by Rush always reminds me of those nights – that and “Let’s Make Love” by The Nolans.

      Willie Rasche was a cheapskate and because I could earn more doing The Bowlin’ Alley, I gave it up for Weds, Fris and Sats in the BA.

      (I did play a rather catholic choice of music on those Sunday nights…)

    85. Thepnr says:

      @Brian Doonthetoon

      I was definitely going to Teezers at that time though I met my wife there in 1979 so before your time. The DJ’s were very important especially in the last 15 minutes when it came to the slow ones 🙂

      The other options at the time were Tiffany’s or the Palais until that burnt down. How did that happen?

    86. CameronB Brodie says:

      Can I just squeeze this one in as well, ta.

      Re. Anna Soubry, “private conversations” and Tory MPs “have said that the loss of hundreds of thousands of jobs will be worth it to regain our country’s sovereignty”.

      That’s what you get if you allow a bunch of social Darwinists anywhere near political power. Especially in an age of global, neo-liberal, consumerism.

      Social Darwinism


      Social Darwinism is a complex and controversial topic, a package of ideologies supposedly inspired by biological evolutionism that is of interest to scholars of both the life and the social sciences. In principle it includes any political system inspired by the view that human nature and social activity are driven by our biological nature, especially as defined by the process of evolution. The complexity of the topic derives from the fact that the term social Darwinism has been applied to a number of different (and to some extent incompatible) ideologies. The key feature is supposed to be the influence of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, in which the “struggle for existence” determines the “survival of the fittest,” thereby ensuring that the species adapts to new conditions—although it is widely assumed that the process also guarantees progress toward higher levels of complexity.

      The classic image is of the proponents of unrestrained free-enterprise capitalism justifying their policy by appealing to the “survival of the fittest.” But the term has also been applied to justifications of militarism and imperialism (national or racial struggle) and to the eugenics movement’s efforts to replace natural selection with a process of artificial selection by restricting the reproduction of the “unfit.” The term has also been applied to more or less any claim that human nature is fixed by hereditary factors, especially those linked to social class or race….

      The intensification of neoliberalism and the commodification of human need – a social work perspective

      Culture of Cruelty: the Age of Neoliberal Authoritarianism

    87. Cactus says:

      Cheers for the Top-10 choons Thepnr 🙂

      Here’s one aye thought might have made the final cut:

      Another Ian B favourite 🙂

      Groovy Tuesday.

      It’s the 17th.

    88. Cactus says:

      Hearing on the lbc wireless that Vote Leave have been fined.

      Sounds fine tae me, congratulations.

      Whip crack away CJ.

    89. Fred says:

      @ Thepnr, well done kid!

    90. Thepnr says:


      Cheers Brian, I really enjoyed reading that and all the other posts.

    91. yesindyref2 says:

      The UK is finished for Scotland, it’s not if it’s when, hope I’m still alive to be here for it. Here’s the quickening of the version on MT.

    92. CameronB Brodie says:

      Re. the inner Trump we all apparently have inside us.

      Authoritarianism, Dominance, and Social Behavior: A Perspective from Evolutionary Personality Psychology


      The concept of authoritarianism has been widely misunderstood because of both confusion about values and science and disagreement about a definition of the concept within different areas of psychology. Research in cognitive and social psychology has focused on linking scores on authoritarianism scales with social behavior or information processing, but these efforts have not been very successful at either defining the concept or predicting behavior. In developmental research, authoritarian parenting refers to an emphasis on parental control and decision making. Organizational authoritarianism has been linked to higher productivity and, in some cases, with lower job satisfaction. One way of making sense of the variety of definitions of authoritarianism is in terms of evolutionary personality theory and the concepts of dominance and submission. These biological concepts are relevant to both human and animal behavior, and they can be used to explain authoritarianism in scientific, rather than pejorative, terms.

      Keywords authoritarianism, evolutionary personality psychology, dominance, group behavior

      Can evolutionary psychology and personality theory explain Trump’s popular appeal?

      In Pursuit of Three Theories: Authoritarianism, Relative Deprivation, and Intergroup Contact

    93. CameronB Brodie says:

      Trump is a narcissistic, authoritarian, mysogynist, it is more than a little unfortunate for the world that the “Hairy Plumber” has managed to game his way to so much agency.

      Discursive psychology, rhetoric and the issue of agency


      Recent years have seen the growth of a movement which has aimed to reorientate the discipline of psychology around the study of discourse. Generally known as discursive psychology, this movement has had a large effect on social psychology, particularly in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Scandinavia and South America. Its effect in the United States has been less marked. Discursive psychology is part of the general movement of critical psychology, which has been reacting against mainstream social psychology, especially the sort of experimental psychology that remains dominant in the United States (see, for instance, Gough and McFadden, 2001; Gergen, 2001; Hepburn, 2003; Sloan, 2000).

      Discursive psychologists have not been content merely to criticise mainstream psychology. They have proposed alternative ways of conducting psychological research, shifting the balance from the quantitative methodologies to qualitative ones, together with a commitment to studying human psychology through the use of language. Discursive psychology, however, represents more than a methodological alternative to conventional psychology. It rests upon an attempt to establish new, theoretical principles. At its heart lies a very different conception of language than that which is accepted by most mainstream psychologists, especially cognitive psychologists.

      In this paper, I will outline some of the principles of discursive psychology, especially in relation to its reaction against cognitive psychology. I will seek to show why philosophically the position of discursive psychology entails a critique of cognitivism, and I will describe attempts to use discursive principles to reformulate psychoanalytic theory. In addition, I will discuss the problem of agency, especially how it applies to discursive psychology. I will suggest that the problem of agency is essentially a rhetorical issue rather than a theoretical or methodological one. Calling it a rhetorical problem does not imply that it is a lesser problem – as if it were ‘mere rhetoric’, and, thereby, of lesser significance than theory or methodology. To suggest this would contradict the very basis of discursive psychology, which recognizes the importance of rhetoric in social life. By calling the issue a rhetorical one, I hope to draw attention to the importance of the way that psychologists, including discursive psychologists, use language to write about the phenomena that they are studying.

      Agency-Structure Dualism – Critical Social Psychology

      The Discursive Psychological Perspective – Critical Social Psychology

    94. CameronB Brodie says:

      I’ve just skimmed the surface of this issue, as I’m very out of practice, but Scotland needs to wake up to the true nature of British nationalism. A post-Brexit Britain is not somewhere I imagine most [c]conservatively minded Scots would want to go, frankly. Cultural sustainability is bound to social justice and environmental sustainability, so it is intrinsically linked to human rights. Scotland is currently denied access to inalienable human rights, as consequence of the “One Nation” ideology of British nationalism. A Tory invention, btw., which offers very little prospect of hope for Scotland, IMHO.

      Post-Cognitive Psychology

      This paper speculates about what will, and should, follow cognitivism in psychology in the new century. It highlights the importance of the work of Wittgenstein, Sacks and Edwards for the development of post-cognitive psychology. Cognitivism is criticized for failing to conceptualize practices in a way that recognizes their action orientation and co-construction, and to appreciate how they are given sense through people’s categories, formulations and orientations. Discursive psychology focuses on the production of versions of reality and cognition as parts of practices in natural settings. It is offered as one potential successor to cognitivism.

      Keywords action, cognitivism, discursive psychology, practices

      Embodying discourse analysis: Lessons learned about epistemic and ontological psychologies

      Responding to critiques of ‘Including social discourses and experience in research on refugees, race, and ethnicity’, and providing suggestions for future work in discursive psychology, this article expands upon the complex and dynamic character of research in socioculturally informed social science. Through a better understanding of experience and an awareness of broader social discourse, one is able to consider verisimilar ontologies, which are fundamentally socio-linguistic phenomena. It is important to understand the value in using discursive psychology’s analytical practices; however, an awareness of the need to expand upon such practices is necessary in order to better understand how experience is cultivated in dynamic and rhythmic co-regulated social constitution. Future research should endeavor to develop techniques that are not necessarily formulaic, but are still examinable for the purposes of determining good versus bad work.

      Keywords Discursive psychology, embodiment, experience, ontology

      Beyond the Ontological Turn: Affirming the Relative Autonomy of Politics


      In this article, I critically evaluate a characteristic tendency that is found across the various traditions of poststructuralism, both narrowly and more broadly defined. This is an increasing propensity to be preoccupied with ontological questions and seemingly at the expense of either a refinement of political concepts or a concrete analysis of forms of power and domination. I consider the reasons for this development and stress how this characteristic feature of poststructuralism appears to follow from the very fact of ontological pluralism. What we see in contemporary continental thought is a proliferation of different traditions, and each side seeks to defend their position in ontological terms. Following this, I advance the idea of a relative autonomy between ontology and politics, where the former does not determine the latter in any direct or straightforward fashion. I argue that we need to stress this relative autonomy to open a little space between ontology and politics, space where we can return poststructuralism to a more concrete engagement with ‘the political’.

      Keywords ontology, politics, political, relative autonomy, domination

    95. CameronB Brodie says:

      Authoritarianism, Dominance, and Social Behavior: A Perspective from Evolutionary Personality Psychology link

    96. Brian Doonthetoon says:

      I’ve just watched the first episode of “Rip It Up”, looking at the history of Scottish “pop” over the past 60 years (on BBC2 Scotland).

      I found episode 1 fairly good. I must admit that I found my eyes becoming watery during the Lulu and Middle of The Road segments. (Must be an age/nostalgia thing.)

      I’ll wait for the segment on Skeets Boliver/Michael Marra and Jim Kelly and the Sleaz Band…

    97. CameronB Brodie says:

      Re. Kezia. With an MA in Social Policy(?), there really is no excuses for her political stance, IMHO.

      Critical Consciousness: An Alternative Pathway for Positive Personal and Social Development


      This paper presents a conceptual model of the integrative psychological construct of critical consciousness (CC), defined as a moral awareness which propels individuals to disembed from their cultural, social, and political environment, and engage in a responsible critical moral dialogue with it, making active efforts to construct their own place in social reality and to develop internal consistency in their ways of being. The ontogeny of CC is analyzed in terms of the synergistic interaction between its two main components, structural developmental and moral motivation. The paper describes the cross-cultural interview research which allowed the elaboration of the CC developmental pathway. It posits the dimension of moral motivation as distinguishing the CC pathway, and illustrates the continuum between predominantly moral and expediency motivation through brief case vignettes. The paper differentiates three developmental macrolevels of CC, and illustrates through case vignettes two alternatives of social consciousness at the level of conventional morality—CC and non-CC. Some possible sources of moral motivation in personal history and biography are discussed.

      Moral development, social consciousness, social responsibility, critical thought, Freire

      Understanding Internalized Oppression: A Theoretical Conceptualization of Internalized Subordination

      Frantz Fanon, Steve Biko,‘psychopolitics’ and critical psychology

    98. Ian Brotherhood says:

      Just dropping this in before I try to catch-up with all the comments I’ve missed this last week or so, hope abody’s well there.

      My boy has been playing this for days and it eventually grabbed me so mibbe others will like it. Apologies if it’s already been posted…

      Dermot Kennedy, ‘Young & Free’ –

    99. Cactus says:

      Oh what a Scottish Summer 1976 / 2018!

      This is like the Westminster Tory politicians current political reality like:

      iScotland announcement very soon now.

      Yes 2 for one and all of us.

      Here’s Doogie and the guys (a double-play):

      I got it on the original on tape cassette. 🙂

      Theresa May, politician… ahhhhh hahahahaha!

      Whose next…?

      42 years.

      To learn.

    100. Ian Brotherhood says:

      @Thepnr –

      Just caught up with all your Top Ten. Great stuff!

      I only ever posted ‘Hurts So Good’ because Paula had gone AWOL and I was trying to draw her back in. I’d never heard that song before she posted it. Seems such a long time ago now. Then again, so does the night of the referendum itself.


    101. CameronB Brodie says:

      @Kezia Dugdale
      Have a gander at these, then come and join those who seek effective political representation. Or are you a British nationalist?

      A Pedagogy of Social Justice Education:
      Social Identity Theory, Intersectionality, and Empowerment

      This article explores a theoretical and practical understanding of social justice education through an examination of a US-based intergroup educational organization running conflict transformation programs since 2005. Based on in-depth interviews conducted with and surveys completed by administrators, educators, and student participants of the organization’s programs, this article analyzes a case example of social justice education that integrates Freirean thought, social identity theory, intersectionality, and experiential education, including empowerment and responsibility education. Offering different programs aimed at distinct constituencies yet all based in the same pedagogy, the organization’s primary goal is to empower participants to engage in social justice activism.

      From Charity Towards a Social Justice Paradigm: Critical Consciousness Through Service-Learning

      A Social Justice Lens
      A Teaching Resource Guide

    102. Thepnr says:

      @Ian Brotherhood

      It does seem like such a long time ago, I reckon I’ve aged twenty years since deciding to support Independence lol

      Still if something is worth fighting for then it’s worth it.

      Here’s one that didn’t quite make the top ten, played first by me in 2014 🙂 and also by Smallaxe.

    103. CameronB Brodie says:

      Anyone feel as if an indyref might be in the air? On the inherent sense of self-entitlement that’s intrinsic to British nationalism, Tories and stuff.

      Collective Narcissism and its Social Consequences


      This paper introduces the concept of collective narcissism – an emotional investment in an unrealistic belief about the in-group’s greatness – aiming to explain how feelings about an in-group shape a tendency to aggress against out-groups. The results of 5 studies indicate that collective, but not individual, narcissism predicts inter-group aggressiveness. Collective narcissism is related to high private and low public collective self esteem and low implicit group esteem. It predicts perceived threat from out-groups, unwillingness to forgive out-groups and preference for military aggression over and above social dominance orientation, right wing authoritarianism, and blind patriotism. The relationship between collective narcissism and aggressiveness is mediated by perceived threat from out-groups and perceived insult to the in-group. In sum, the results indicate that collective narcissism is a form of high but ambivalent group esteem related to sensitivity to threats to the in-group’s image and retaliatory aggression.…narcissism.pdf

      Narcissists aren’t very conservative but believe in inequality

      The Psychology of Legitimacy
      Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice, and Intergroup Relations

    104. Thepnr says:


      Another new one for me, just had my daughter watch the two of them and isn’t it funny how there faces can change. Jeezo I wish I had the power to give everybody more information.

      Anyway have a good kip, tomorrow is another day where we will have to fight the good fight. Armageddon isn’t going away unless we force it to by the power in all of us.

      That is the power of persuasion and we really need to use it.

    105. Cactus says:

      SO to learn.

      1976 to 2018 to 2060.

      The message in the spirit of the meaning of…

      Every 42 years we will have a most excellent summer.

      Aye wonder if England & Wales will be back in the EU by then?


    106. CameronB Brodie says:

      Re. the fundamentalist faith promoted by the New Right and which causes Septicemic Brexititis. It sold well with Anglicans, especially the non-practicing variety. Brexit is an expression of English culturalism that has gotten out of hand, it does not respect the Scottish vote.

      Sacred Politics—Trump, Brexit and Civil Religion

      British Civil Religion?

      November’s Armistice Day commemorates the sacrifice of troops in Britain. Faith and political leaders arrive at the Cenotaph, laying wreaths. In November 2015, tabloid headlines accused leader of the opposition Jeremy Corbyn of failing to show due reverence due to not bowing deeply enough. Later, he faced the scorn of the then Prime Minister David Cameron for not singing the national anthem. This year, the story was that Corbyn “danced a jig” prior to the memorial service, once again, failing to reflect the sombre mood of the event.

      It is clear that Britain has a civil religion too – different though from the United States. The accusations and criticisms of Corbyn are that of impiety. He is not reverent enough, he does not commit to the rituals, he is an infidel, a hypocrite who doesn’t believe in the national religion at all.

      The argument of impiety in civil religion will largely fall flat for those on the left, but for the British right, who value traditional institutions, it is a significant charge.

      Britain’s civil religion is currently up for debate. While Britain was once an undeniably Christian country, the public role of religion has increasingly diminished, prompting the former Archbishop Rowan Williams to observe Britain is a “post-Christian” country….

      How religious groups voted in the 2016 referendum on Britain’s EU membership

      Recent research has shed light on the voting preferences of the British electorate at last year’s Brexit referendum, looking at how support for remain or leave was distributed across a range of socio-demographic groups, as well as showing how it varied based on party support, policy preferences and ideological beliefs. How did religious groups in wider society vote? Were some more likely than others to have voted to leave the EU or vice versa? Data from wave 9 of the British Election Study Internet Panel Study, undertaken after the referendum (with fieldwork conducted by YouGov between 24 June-6 July 2016), allow a comparison of voting behaviour based on religious affiliation. The core sample for wave 9 is used, which enables cross-sectional analysis of the data.

      The figure below shows the proportions voting remain and leave within different religious groups. Some groups showed an even split between the two options on the ballot (Methodists and Baptists) and some showed a slight preference for one side or the other (Catholics and Church of Scotland / Presbyterian for remain; Jews and other Christian for leave); but more distinct voting patterns are also evident. Those who identify themselves as Anglican or Church of England were clearly in the leave camp – 60% backed Britain leaving the EU and 40% supported staying. Muslims were clearly in the remain camp, with 69% choosing this option and 31% in favour of leaving the EU. Those with no religion (a group with a younger age profile) were in the ‘remain camp’, by 57% to 43%, as were those belonging to other non-Christian faiths (55% to 45%) and those who preferred not to disclose their religious affiliation (55% to 45%)….

      The Social Consequences of Brexit for the UK and Europe: Euroscepticism, Populism, Nationalism, and Societal Division


      This article examines the 2016 Referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union and draws on initial research into the reasons that the UK voted to leave and demographics of the leave vote. This initial analysis suggests that the Brexit (British Exit) vote reveals wider and deeper societal tensions along the lines of age, class, income, and education (Goodwin and Heath 2016). By providing an account of the background and events of the referendum, this article asserts that the vote was a case study in populist right-wing Eurosceptic discourse (Leconte 2010; Taggart 2004), but it also reveals strong elements of English nationalism (including British exceptionalism and social conservatism) in parts of British society (Henderson et al. 2016; Wellings 2010). Given this, the article begins to make sense of Brexit from a social quality perspective and outlines a possible social quality approach to the UK and Europe post-Brexit.

    107. CameronB Brodie says:

      Sacred Politics—Trump, Brexit and Civil Religion link, doh.

      @Kezia Dugdale
      Have you considered your position from the perspective of Democtatic Theory?

      Political Self-Determination and the Normative Significance of Territorial Boundaries

      I. Introduction

      Proponents of global egalitarian justice often argue that their positions are compatible with the principle of self-determination.2 This argument is not merely a strategy of reassuring and appeasing nationalist and statist opponents; rather it conveys the intuition that self-determination is pertinent for just institutions, protecting liberties and rights. Especially in the context of international justice, the principle of self-determination assumes a strong normative power due to its primacy in theoretical and political opposition to colonial rule.3

      At the same time, the arguments in favour of global egalitarian justice reject one customary component of what it has meant for a polity to be self-determining: namely, that the boundaries of states (or other self-determining political units) are normatively significant for the allocation of rights and duties. They reject, in other words, the proposition that duties of social justice and rights of political participation stop or significantly change at borders.4

      In this paper, I propose a new argument in defense of the normative significance of territorial boundaries, which draws on a political interpretation of the principle of self-determination. This specific interpretation of the principle of self-determination emerges from the detailed analyses of the relationship between self-determination and boundaries-making, developed in theories of secession.5

      Theories of secession have focused on disputed territories, assessing the validity of various claims to territory in light of the principle of self-determination. These discussions are of direct relevance for global egalitarian arguments and their critiques in regard to territories that are not currently disputed, because much of the debate concerns the validity of claims by polities to their territories and the scope of their self-determination. The political interpretation explored here defines the claim for self-determination asa claim by a group with a shared political identity to establish (or maintain) separate political institutions with jurisdiction over identifiable territory.

      The political interpretation is distinct, in the normative principle that it invokes, from two other conceptions of self-determination: the national and the democratic. In the national version, self-determination derives its normative claim from the value of nationality; in the democratic interpretation, self-determination is a claim to an equal participation in decision-making, deriving its normative claim from the value of democracy.6


      CHAPTER 2:

      2.2 Legal framework governing self-determination

      Invariably the starting point is Article 1 of the UN Charter which states in the material part that one of the purposes of the United Nations is:

      2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace.69

      Article 55 of the same Charter tracks the language of article 1 in requiring states parties to promote higher standards of living, international and cultural co-operation and universal respect for human rights and freedoms.70 Reference to the principle of equal rights and self-determination can also be found in articles 73 and 76(b) of the UN Charter. As a principle of the United Nations, self-determination has also been carried to the fore and addressed in a number of conventions, cases and resolutions.71

      Two “Decolonisation Resolutions” were passed in 1960 by the UN General Assembly – Res. 1514(XV) and 1541(XV), which provided for the right to self-determination in terms precisely identical to the contemporary framing of the right in the covenants. Suffice it to say that the two Resolutions were purely of colonial context and purpose though still regarded to be the cornerstone of the UN law of self-determination.72 The principle has also been applied in a series of judgments by the I.C.J such as the South West Africa Case,73 the Western Sahara Case74 and the East Timor Case.75 In the East Timor case, the I.C.J stated that the right of peoples to self-determination was one of the “essential principles of contemporary international law”.

    108. Smallaxe says:

      Rasta Children feat. Nattali Rize: Playing For Change/Song Around The World;

    109. CameronB Brodie says:

      Scotland, stand up against ‘British’ exceptionalism, a.k.a. English cultural chauvinism. It won’t end well for Scotland if England gets it’s way on Brexit. Say no to racism.!

      Sista Mary – Blindeye

    110. CameronB Brodie says:

      The far-right have stroked post-colonial England’s need for for a tangible sense of direction after empire, with the eager support of the corporate media and the BBC. The politic class is now powerless to avert Brexit, which represents the adoption of an authoritarian totalitarianism as the articulation of British nationalism and culture. The far-right will destroy any potential for hope in Scotland, if we let them.

      Leroy Sibbles – Garden Of Life

    111. CameronB Brodie says:

      The prospect of living the rest of my life under a paradigm of racist austerity on stilts, really doesn’t appeal to me. Self-determination for Scotland is where it’s at, as a written constitution would help prevent sociopaths in public office from cause harm to the public. Given the direction of travel that England has chosen, Scotland needs independence in order to survive culturally, intellectually and spiritually, so let’s get moving.

      Bassomatic – Rat Cut-a-Bottle

    112. Tinto Chiel says:

      Is it just me or is there a strong resemblance between Man A in this:

      And Man B in this?

      Spooky is wot I say.

    113. Cactus says:

      Gd evenin’ wise ones, enjoying the Garden of Life and Bassomatic, thx Cameron bro 😉

    114. Cactus says:

      This post is about a da pizza pie.

      Cookery serving suggestion #458…

      Overoil and try sprinkling some granulated brown demerara sugar over your a da pizza pie with extra lots of sugar in the centre, think of the flan ‘gumars‘.

      Sweet bites.

    115. Fred says:

      Dead-ringer Tinto. The red-troosered sage of Cadzow does it again!

    116. Tinto Chiel says:

      @Fred: unfortunately for Mr Eardley, Stanley still makes more sense. What a maroon, as old Bugs used to say.


      Btw, the breeks are more terra cotta…

    117. Thepnr says:

      @Tinto Chiel

      The posh English speaking Stanley Baxter looks more like Ross Thomson!

      As for the first BBC clip, that looks like a spoof.

    118. Tinto Chiel says:

      Everything on BBC is a spoof, Thepnr.

      I tried to verify your claim that Baxter is more like Ross Thomson but the latter’s head is so far up Bojo’s arse, it is impossible to tell at the mo. He’s the kind of wee sook at school who got taken round the back of the bicycle sheds to show him the error of his ways in a firm yet supportive, caring and inclusive environment.


      A beautiful day here in South Central North Britain. The BRITISH Greek basil our daughter brought us from S________’s is still doing fine. My baby robin likes grated cheddar cheese and I have seeded the back grass with AP mines to deter that bloody ginger cat that sneaks about the garden.

      Problem solved!

    119. Smallaxe says:


      Is that cat giving you Gyp;

      Btw, what does a cheese fed robin taste like?

    120. Tinto Chiel says:

      Morning, Smallaxe: you have been a busy boy since Nana went on undercover border patrol.

      Your robin-based question was deep, mon vieux haricot (as deep as the well of my Brexit apprehension).

      I’m going to plump for a theoretical “cheesy” at the mo.

      In other news: I may be just imagining this but I think my BRITISH Greek basil is tasting a bit gammon now.

    121. Tinto Chiel says:

      “Gammony” obvs.

      Y did my Y not Y?

      Take that, fillosiphers.

    122. Tinto Chiel says:

      That’s even deeper, old mole, and requires much musing.

      Deeply depressed by GMK’s timetable.

      Off to erect a Keep Off The Grass sign.

    123. Tinto Chiel says:

      Not that kind of grass, you silly sossage.

      Have just been informed by my carer I am going shopping for a new item for her Inverness wardrobe (and I don’t mean a handle).

      This could take some time……

    124. Smallaxe says:

      I feel your pain, old chap. My carer bought a new vacuum cleaner yesterday and it came without utensils so I have to take her into darkest Carlisle today to allow her to punch someone!

      I’ll just have to suck it up;

    125. Fred says:

      Anent Carlisle & Wardrobes, came across Archbishop Gavin Dunbar of Glasgow’s magnificent curse on Borderers & thought of Mundell,

      An ex of Fatty Soames once described sex with Churchill’s grandson as lying under a double wardrobe in which somebody had left a small key!

    126. Tinto Chiel says:

      “… lying under a double wardrobe in which somebody had left a small key!”

      Definitely not a skeleton key in his case, Fred, eh? I believe he said something about two days ago about Brexit but I couldn’t really give a flying fruit bat about the sexist old grunter.

      I wish I could remember the name of the wit who said he was initially excited about his new Dyson but now it languishes in the cupboard under the stairs just gathering dust…..

    127. Ian Brotherhood says:

      ‘Fatty’ Soames pops up frequently in Alan Clark’s diaries, seems they were very close.

      Just thought I’d throw that in there to help momentarily dispel the image of him, naked, lying on top of someone else. You wouldn’t wish that on anyone, unless, of course, it’s another Tory (which it probably was).

      Ach, I would say ‘Fuck Them All’ but they’re doing it for themselves these days…

    128. Fred says:

      Is this the same Soames who phoned Lady Di on behalf of Prince Charles & predicted that she would be finished off in a car accident? guess wot!

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