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Wings Over Scotland

Power retention

Posted on February 15, 2018 by

We still have no reliable internet, just occasional five-minute bursts or a shonky 4G phone connection, but there’s a BT Openreach man in the garden and as soon as he gets hold of a different kind of all-terrain BT Openreach man we’re hopeful that the problem will finally be fixed by the end of today, after two weeks.

In the meantime, we couldn’t help but be struck in passing by the collapse of talks on reopening the Northern Ireland’s devolved Assembly, which has now been closed for over a year following the failure of an election to deliver a workable administration.

If there’s a better illustration of just how limited the powers of devolution in the UK are than the fact that the region seems to have muddled along just fine for 13 months without the parliament, we’re having a hard time thinking of what it might be. The old saying that “power devolved is power retained” has never been more visibly true.

If Scotland wants to thrive, it can only do so with all the meaningful powers of a nation under its own control, and at the end of the day there’s only one way to get those.

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    1. 15 02 18 13:56

      Power retention | speymouth

    65 to “Power retention”

    1. Muscleguy says:

      You can get 4G? I saw 4G on my phone once, fleetingly, in the front room of a friend’s place on the Edinburgh waterfront. That was a couple of years ago. Mind you I never noticed it in Central London either. But I recently saw a map showing we had something like 16% G4 coverage up here.

      Best I can get is H+. I’ve log given up on the idea of mobile browsing except via wifi. WhatsApp is just about the limit.

    2. Roger Hyam says:

      Belgium went 589 without an elected government. Generally politicians aren’t as important as they make out. Something to hold onto whilst listening to Boris.

    3. Dan Huil says:

      Hope you checked Openreach-guy’s ID.

      What happens in Ireland [Assembly and EU] will be influencial on what happens to Scotland in the near future. We must keep watching developments there.

    4. louis.b.argyll says:

      Indeed Stuart, it’s getting serious.

      The future is at stake.

      All our futures are being shaped RIGHT NOW, against our wishes, by a small-minded bully, a former influential but NEVER popular state with a history of abuses and greed-driven complicity.

    5. Clootie says:

      Devolution will never work because Westminster will always have the ability to force through the policies of the majority. Westminster is the English Parliament AND the U.K. Parliament therefore we will always maintain and pursue the English centric journey. the maintenance of THE Capitol (London), The weapons of force projection, the gap between rich and poor, the elite such as the Royal Family and the HOL and otherright wing policies loved of the various hues of Tory.

      I can find no better examples than Brexit and the Trident replacement to make my case.

      We will forever be the dog on the flexi-lead moving in orbit around the Masters path of choice. A longer lead is still a lead.

    6. robert alexander harrison says:

      The fact the whole Northern Ireland without a government saga has dragged on so long and still going is the blatantly obvious fact english mps see no use or value in imposing direct rule on Northern Ireland where as if that was holyrood they’d have done that already by the 1st week of a collapse up here.

    7. bobajock says:


      And if you’re a Brit .. think King Canute

    8. GA says:

      What Dan Huil says is true. Check the BT guy’s ID and maybe have a look over his shoulder to make sure you don’t have any extra little black boxes sitting on your internet/phone cables…

    9. Iron Man says:

      No internet? I think they are trying to silence you. Keep an eye out for burly blokes in dark suits and shades.

    10. Roger Hyam says:

      BTW: Do upscale Bath coffee houses not offer free wifi?

    11. galamcennalath says:

      Clootie says:

      Devolution will never work

      In terms of making fundamental changes to society, or making (most) big decisions on how we fit in the world, it can’t.

      Looks like Spain has a similar model where the centre can overrule the devolved when it feels like it.

      Federations and confederations are different. There, a constitution defines what powers of parts have and what powers the centre has. It much rarer and constitutionally difficult for the centre to interfere in ‘states’ business’. In a confederation, the parts are sovereign and come together for some common purposes.

      Fortunately, the UK will never become federal. That would be a step backwards IMO, because underneath the current system this United Kingdom is a collection of nations and countries.

      The UK’s devolution model is limited and shaky. As events have proven, it isn’t even on clear constitutional ground!

      Still, as long as Holyrood can hold IndyRef2, the devolved administration will has achieved a great deal!

    12. Meg merrilees says:

      robert alexander harrison
      Couldn’t agree more – if N.IRELAND was important to WM they would have knocked heads together ages ago.

      Fact is, T May sealed her own fate and that of N.Ireland the minute she did the dirty deal with the DUP. She cannot get them to do anything they don’t want to do.

      The DUP thinks it can have everything its own way because the Tories can’t afford to offend them, they think that Direct rule will be the best solution for them as they will still be part of GB – but have they realised that they are negotiating their own jobs away?

      As has been said already, if they remain part of the UK they will have to implement same sex marriage and change their abortion laws. Or will they – is this is where they will refuse to back T May and the whole dodgy deal will collapse?

      Scotland needs to get clear of all of this as soon as possible, and it might be fortuitous to act whilst all this mayhem ( no pun intended) is diverting attention on Scotland. Attck them on more than one front and you weaken their resistance – hopefully!

    13. Were the power sharing talks ever going to be succeed
      I doubted it, because this situation suits the unionists
      in Northern Ireland

    14. louis.b.argyll says:

      Those two BT engineers aren’t called Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are they?

    15. Arbroath1320 says:

      Good old D.U.P. showing the world that it really IS true. The flat earth and sectarian society of N.I. really do have no idea about the meaning of the word DEMOCRATIC!

    16. Macart says:

      But, but, but, we’ve got the sooper dooperest devolution in the history of the world ever. Fluffy sez so and so do the other (fairly nameless) folk in the me masel’ and I parties. Oh, and the meeja. They said so too. In fact they’ve been quite insistent that we’ve had that vow thingy delivered several times over. How can we not be in control? Why are budgets pressed? Why are we allowed to fix some stuff, but not others? What do you mean devolved and… reserved?

      Y’know, the premise/job description of government is quite simple. Put food on our table. Be a good neighbour. Keep us safe. Tend to our injured, infirm and poor (because there but for the grace of…etc). Keep our books balanced. Reflect the will of the people and do not inflict your will upon the people. Do not EVER mislead us, steal from us, or inflict needless harm upon us.

      In return: We’ll pay you pretty good wages. Give you responsibility and privilege. A nice big, comfy gaff to work in with decent exes. You get to travel to new places on our behalf, make new friends in our name and hopefully don’t cause any bother.

      Seems like a pretty good, straightforward deal t’me. Don’t think there’s any lack of clarity in there. So….

      Does anyone feel particularly safe or cared for under UK governance? As a literal partner in this particular political union, do you feel represented, respected, valued… luuuurved about now? Do you feel remotely in control of your government? Do you reckon it’ll all come good if we just wait a bit?

      If the answer is no to those questions, then there’s only one thing to do and it won’t happen if you ask nicely. Not even with a pretty pleeeeeeze. Some unions just don’t work out. Some you simply HAVE to walk away from.

      Only the electorate can change their form/system of government. Only people who want to, can empower Holyrood properly to care for their needs.

      The good news is… they can. The population of Scotland, ALL of the population, have that option. So in your own time folks, but I wouldn’t hang about too long. 🙂

    17. orri says:

      If Stormont had been set up along the same lines as Holyrood there would have been fresh elections long before now. It’s almost as though the talks are simply about preventing a re-election rather than aiming to set up a new administration.

      I’m in two minds at which is worst though, the unionist insistence that Ulster is british and there should be not place for one of the native languages, never mind adding Ulster Scots in in order to establish that unionists have a right to be there, or the shades of Buffalo Bill in Scotland where Gaelic is being used as a way to get near private education for the kids of people who’s ancestors may very well have been the ones you eradicated it amongst it’s native speakers. Useful to know the kids can drop the whole thing after they get into secondary education.

    18. cearc says:


      Have you considered getting satellite broadband as well as a back-up? You can get 10GB/mth usage for £20/mth (plus installation) from the Avantis satellite. It would tide you over when you have problems.

      It is very reliable. I’ve never had a problem in the 6yrs. since my landline stopped carrying an internet signal.

    19. Bob Mack says:

      The power sharing talks will continue until legislation is passed in Westminster dissolving Stormont and picking up direct rule. Now be clear about this. This holds very serious implications for the UK, not just because of the DUP, but because it would cause a major diplomatic event via Ireland and it’s allies. IE. EU, who are also underwriting the Good friday agreement.

      The only way out of this is for Britain to have the EU impose customs borders rather than the UK. That is what they are hoping will happen. Their tactic may well be to to nothing but rather take interim control of budgets etc.

      This is far more serious an issue than they let on.

      If they break their assurances to the EU, then Scotland could have a very powerful ally who is seriously pissed off with Westminster.

    20. Calum McKay says:

      “If there’s a better illustration of just how limited the powers of devolution in the UK are than the fact that the region seems to have muddled along just fine for 13 months without the parliament, we’re having a hard time thinking of what it might be.”

      Neither can I other than the blame for “perceived failures” as portrayed in press & bbc, gets shifted from westminster to the devolved parliament or assembly.

      Colonial rule was never designed to help or please the colonised, it has one purpose, to fill the pockets of the colonising elite!

    21. louis.b.argyll says:

      Oops, recheck those IDs, meant to say Goldberg & McCann, wrong literary link.

    22. louis.b.argyll says:

      Cearc, ever thought of a job in sales?

    23. stewartb says:


      Just to commend today’s Alex Salmond Show and Alex’s interview with the new leader of Sinn Fein, Mary Lou McDonald. Great mix of issues covered – historical perspective; about the party’s claim to be left of centre and progressive as well as nationalist and republican; commentary on Westminster government, its handling of Brexit and implications for Ireland, north and south; views on how much power over the Tory government the DUP actually wields etc.

      Interesting to have an opportunity to hear her (and a Sinn Fein) point of view not just as sound bites but at length.

    24. geeo says:

      It seems to me it was no coincidence that power sharing in N.I. left the building when Brexit was voted for.

      It removed one part of the Uk who voted REMAIN from the argument. Nobody ever mentions N.I. voted Remain, so the illusion is created it is just those damn Scots ruining their precious brexit.

      As mentioned before, DUP are in charge at WM, something only possible with no parliament active at Stormont.

      WM is trying to spin ever more plates with ever fewer hands to keep them up.

      When indyref is called, WM will be trying to spin their plates with a ticking timebomb amongst them.

    25. Iain mhor says:

      So that’s what Mundell is up to this last year with his increased budget & personnel – He’s running N’Irn!
      Probably the idea is to fold N’Irn into Scotland (or maybe the other way round) It’s just across the water, it’s up in North Britain, lots of Unionist Orangemen handy. Stick the Customs border along the err Borders. Solves the Irish Problem, Keeps the Jocks in the Customs Union a while and staves off reasons for Indy2 for a couple of years. Stick the DUP in Holyrood and whip up a bit more sectarianism during that period. Come the Scottish elections – Unionist majorities. Brexit ends.
      Unionists out of Europe one side, in Europe other side, ruling both and the best of both worlds – sort it all out with a G.E later and jobs a good un.

      I need a lie down.

    26. Peter Brunskill says:

      ‘Power devolved is power retained; that is exactly why it is acceptable’. I think Enoch Powell’s reassuring words that despite appearances, power really stays where it is.

      Thats why Cameron and Co were prepared to make the Devo Max vow and yet opposed Independence with every fibre of their beings. Once Scotland has left the Union, there is no retained power.

    27. Gary45% says:

      Stu, Did you check out the credentials of the BT engineer?
      MI5 e.t.c, after all you are the biggest thorn in the side of the establishment.
      Not that I am being paranoid.
      Do you still have to pay for a landline to BT by using the system you mentioned, we are looking at a new internet provider that does not mean you have to give BT money.

    28. Robert J. Sutherland says:

      Clootie @ 12:45:

      A longer lead is still a lead.

      Well put, that.

      Back in IR1, I made a misjudgement. When Labourites tried to persuade me that all I had to do was vote “no” and wait until the 2015 UKGE when they would win and put everything right =laugh=, I would reply that the result was far more likely to be a Tory-UKIP coalition, and “how would you like that?”.

      Well, what we have now is worse: a Labour Party that is rudderless and a Tory party that has become UKIP in all but name (with only a few dissenters left standing) in effective coalition with the DUP (equal-opportunity bigots who hate virtually everybody except themselves).

      There is no lead long enough to get away from these people.

    29. sensibledave says:


      … anyone got any idea what goes on either side of the white panel here on wings?

      Is there an oft repeated image of a couple of aliens involved in
      …. errr, …. the act?

    30. Bob Mack says:

      @Sensible dave,

      No, that’s a mirror your looking at.

    31. cearc says:


      Entirely independent of landline. Unless you want a landline phone you wouldn’t need a line at all.

      The current Avantis UK agent is now a who took over from the previous Irish agent, Their website still doesn’t seem to mention UK though so you would have to use the contact form for details.

    32. annie says:

      Watched a Question Time a while back with members of the NI devolved parliament on panel and they were visibly shocked when audience member suggested they have there pay stopped until they go back to power sharing governing. Bet that would concentrate a few minds.

    33. Gary45% says:

      Cheers for that cearc, I am a bit of a dinosaur when it comes to tech.
      Wee O?T over in Eljin-shire this am. Tesco’s selling English copies of the Daily Mirror, front cover all about English organ transplants.

    34. John Walsh says:

      The Sewel Convention, is now simply a ‘self-denying ordinance’. It doesn’t have any legal force at all. WM could close Holyrood if it wants

      And WM will attempt to by undermining the SCOTTISH Gvt achievements.
      Can’t declare UDI ( that’s a mess)
      Westminster will never willingly allow the dissolution of the Act of Union unilaterally by Scotland. It’s reserved matter.
      Even if we vote 60% yes
      We have to persuade WM to sign away their cash cow, and get it though Parliament and the House of Lords .
      You don’t not gain independence from the British empire by being seen a disorderly bunch or a rabble.
      Quote from Sartre “the resistance had the necessary discipline to defeat them”

      Answer the 3 big worries Pensions , jobs and the pound in your pocket . “ it’s the economy stupid” show Scotland can be an independent nation. Not too poor

    35. Hetty says:

      It looks like the UK British Nationalist Government is in a mess, but that is pointing out the obvious. Always the UK putting their ore in, stirring things up, whatever they are doing it sure is not a day job. Dysfunctional is being too kind really. Sad thing is they are messing with peoples’ lives and livelyhoods and couldn’t give a stuff about that. Selfish, greedy, troughing, scheming oxygen wasters.

      Great comment Macart@1.16. They are paid huge amounts to shaft the people, on the pretense they are there to represent, when they only represent their own interests, sickening.

      O/T louis.b.argyll@1.11 and @I.31 thought the first names of the engineers sounded more interesting. 🙂

    36. Thepnr says:

      @Les Wilson

      I dislike posting such long links myself so now use tinyurl. Just type that into google visit the page and paste the long link into a box and a short link will be generated.

      I don’t even bookmark tinyurl as don’t need it often enough but it can be useful. No need to sign up/log in or anything else either.

      Apologies if you are already aware of this, just trying to help.

    37. sensibledave says:

      Bob Mack

      … is that the best you can come up with Bob?

      I am somewhat distracted by the images now and am unable to focus on my main mission to educate and inform my fellow Wingers.

    38. shug says:

      The odd thing is the DUP has not realised that full regulatory alignment means when Dublin changes a law then London will match that law in Ulster thereby making Ulster subject to any law change in the south.

      There is no mention of a limited extent so in reality any law in the north will be set by Dublin. the Border will be the North sea. England cant have the french shipping migrants to Ireland to walk across the border and catch a boat to England

      Ulster will be legislated over by Dublin

      When this penny drops the hard line unionist in Scotland might be tempted to think they have been betrayed by their precious London

    39. Legerwood says:

      louis.b.argyll says:
      15 February, 2018 at 1:11 pm
      Those two BT engineers aren’t called Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are they?””

      No, they’re dead. It’s Haudit and Daudit.

    40. Thepnr says:

      Worth mentioning that the Northern Ireland Assembly was suspended for the entire duration of its second term from from 14 October 2002 until 7 May 2007.

      During this time the Northern Ireland Office and civil service dealt with the decisions in areas that were devolved.

      The majority of NI politicians at that time weren’t too fussed with administration from Westminster and in fact they welcomed it.

      You know who they are the DUP and UUP. Scotland is very different.

    41. Bill McLean says:

      Orri at 1.17pm . Ulster is not British. Ulster is one of the four provinces of the island of Ireland. 6 of the 9 counties of Ulster comprise Northern Ireland. The remaining lucky 3 are part of the Republic of Ireland. A common mistake or a deliberate ruse by the Britnat media who either can’t be arsed to know the facts or delight in their ignorance – i’ll go for the latter.
      PS I know there is no such thing as British nationalism but hell i’m allowed to be wrong sometimes!

    42. Bob Mack says:

      @Sensible dave,

      It’s OK. No great loss in any event.

    43. heedtracker says:

      I am somewhat distracted by the images now and am unable to focus on my main mission to educate and inform my fellow Wingers

      You’ve educated us you’re a tory tosser sensible. UK broadband’s shite because of the tory creep show, all the way back to Snatcher Thatcher and whatever it was that nutter thought internet would become.

      Plagued by tory creeps like sensible d, that’s what Scotland is.

    44. sensibledave says:


      … just so I know heedy, are there any ills in the world that I am not, uniquely, personally responsible for?

      If we really want to get to where the problems originate, I think we need to go back to Alexander Graham Bell. He was jock wasn’t he?

    45. Les Wilson says:

      Thepnr says:
      no problem at all. I know you would have not meant to be anything but helpful.

      I did know about it though,just forgot about it.

    46. K1 says:

      ‘He was jock wasn’t he?’

      Keep up the slurs SD. You hypocritical little stirrer.

    47. Bob Mack says:

      Mr Bell is equally well known for inventing the first Hydrofoil, the first metal detector and the first photo phone.
      Clever guy for a Scot eh?

      What you ever invented Dave? Apart from your intellect.

    48. sensibledave says:


      … so i tried to inject a little amusing distraction into an otherwise quiet afternoon and “shared” my observations about the aliens (alongside) … and, in return, I am somehow blamed for poor internet connections.

      Whilst you know I am very knowledgeable and am a very responsible person, I regret to inform you that there are matters that even my wisdom cannot resolve.

    49. Petra says:

      @ stewartb says at 1:53 pm … ”Just to commend today’s Alex Salmond Show and Alex’s interview with the new leader of Sinn Fein, Mary Lou McDonald. Great mix of issues covered – historical perspective; about the party’s claim to be left of centre and progressive as well as nationalist and republican; commentary on Westminster government, its handling of Brexit and implications for Ireland, north and south; views on how much power over the Tory government the DUP actually wields etc. Interesting to have an opportunity to hear her (and a Sinn Fein) point of view not just as sound bites but at length.”

      Alex stands head and shoulders above the likes of Neil, Brewer and Marr, as examples. He asks a question and then gives the person time to answer without breaking in constantly and and shouting over the top of them. Interesting programme all round. On again at 6:30pm and at midnight.

    50. HandandShrimp says:

      Belgium and Italy have both demonstrated that it is possible for countries to function without Governments. The Civil Service just get on with the job of running everything as it is without annoying eejits interfering every 5 minutes 🙂

      There is only a problem when actual legislation is required. However, pressing legislation isn’t all that frequent an occurrence. Nevertheless, I would have thought that NI is pushing the envelope a tad by now.

    51. Ian McCubbin says:

      Time to go UDI or just state we are an independent state as UK has failed in government in equitable tax spending and in protecting and investing in its citizens.
      We want a different future here from what Westminster wants for UK.

    52. orri says:


      I’m old enough to remember the original Paisley and times when Ulster was used to refer to the Six Counties.

      A big clue might have been when I said it was unionists insistence I was talking about.

    53. starlaw says:

      Bob Mack 5-02

      Metal detector Invented during ww2 by A Polish Soldier In St Andrews, he was never given credit for his work.

    54. Bob Mack says:

      @Star law,

      Sorry to disappoint you, but the first metal detector from which every other prototype was made was from a design by Alexander Graham Bell, which he built amazingly to find a bullet in the President of the United States, a Mr Garfield.

      He had internal bleeding and the Dr’s were unable to find the bullet. In stepped Mr Bell with a prototype to help.

      Unfortunately the bed springs confused the machine and the president succumbed to his wounds. This was in the 1880’s I believe.

    55. louis.b.argyll says:

      Bob Mack,
      .. ‘what you ever invented Dave? Apart from your intellect.’

      Love it.

    56. Bill McLean says:

      orri at 6.58. No offence intended and you will know that many organs of the British state and indeed many folks like us don’t seem to understand the difference between Ulster and Northern Ireland – like the guy reporting from the winter Olympics this morning on radio 5 who referred to the curling team as “the English girls”. Unfortunately I remember old Ian Paisley as well which tells you how old I am. My mother was an Ulsterwoman but really did not like being referred to as Northern Irish which of course she, being from Donegal, was not. I have an old memory of Ian Paisley the elder saying “never trust the English” – I always thought that was an odd statement from an extreme British unionist!

    57. twathater says:

      Just Watched the Alex Salmond show , was really interesting and very illuminating , the new leader of SF appears not to be fooled or enamored with the Maybot or her dysfunctional government , or their total clusterfcuk of brexit

      IMO she is just waiting and working for reunification

      Also watched Gordon Ross indycar and commented

      TBH Gordon what you say maybe make economic sense to the WM govt and will make brexit easier for them , but and it is a huuuuge but if that were to happen Scotland could be faced with a massive influx of UK unionist supporters thereby massively skewering any attempts for independence . The SG better be aware of this possibility and recognise the catastrophic effect this will have on our democratic rights . With this in mind there should be a strict minimum residency qualification of 6 years before being allowed to vote in an indy ref , let’s ALL remember the disturbances and violence in George Square and they won on that occasion?

    58. Bob Mack says:

      Interesting to note that Ms Foster met with senior members of the Orange Lodge prior to her announcement. They apparently said “No way”, and thus ended the talks.

      N Ireland is run by the Lodge. The Tories have given them seats here as well. Unionism is a despicable thing right enough

    59. Street Andrew says:

      4Gs on the phone. Wow. I don’t think my mobile phone would know what to do with them all.

    60. ben madigan says:

      am coming late here due to work committments but will reply to each comment as i read through them all!
      First up:

      @ Robert Alexander harrison who said “english mps see no use or value in imposing direct rule on Northern Ireland”

      Correct Robert in a certain sense.To be precise, Westminster MPs will have a very hard time trying to set up Direct Rule over NI,
      given the terms of the good friday/belfast Agreement, no matter what the DUP demands.

      It’s no longer the early 1970s when Westminster Direct rule was set up unilaterally for 20 odd years.

      Direct rule needs legislation to be passed at Westminster (good luck with that given the current imbroglio over Brexit)

      The Government of the Republic of ireland (co-guarantor of the GFA/BA) has said No to direct rule.

    61. ben madigan says:

      @ Clootie who said “the UK will never become federal”.

      Totally agree Clootie – the UK as it stands can never become federal.

      See this post which I worte soon after IndyRef1.

    62. ben madigan says:

      @ orri who said “It’s almost as though the talks are simply about preventing a re-election rather than aiming to set up a new administration”.

      i am not sure whether a new election is provided for within the GFA/Belfast Agreement.
      They’ve already had one and talks and talks and talks, so I think the general concensus is that another election would be a waste of time and money.

      Also I can’t imagine Westminster would be keen on the idea, given its current problems grappling with brexit which seem to be taking up all its time and attention.

      if a new election is not provided for, the next step is an Intergovernmental Council of PM May’s administration and the Republic of ireland.

      How far that cuts out the DUP (May’s partners/supporters/ the only thing between her and a Westminster collapse) remains to be seen once the Council starts making moves

    63. ben madigan says:

      @ Bob mack who said “it would cause a major diplomatic event via Ireland and it’s allies. IE. EU, who are also underwriting the Good friday agreement”. . . .

      Correct Bob. But not only the EU – the GFA/Belfast Agreement was lodged with the UN as an International Treaty. So the UK won’t get out of its obligations easily and without some cost to itself.

      the irish have long been aware the name “Perfidious Albion” was well earned
      The EU is learning fast – see their determination to get the phase I agreements set in to a legal treaty and signed before they allow the UK to move onto phase II of the Brexit Withdrawal negotiations

    64. velofello says:

      Reference who invented the metal detector: USA President James A Garfield was shot by a young Charles Giteau, said to be a disappointed office bearer, on 2 July 1881.The song of the event was recorded in 1927 by the Virginia String Band. It is alleged that Garfield wrote the song.

      Why do I know this? well It’s one of my modest renditions of US Country music.

      And, on the Alec Salmond show last night “Ireland will not be the collateral damage of Brexit”declares the SinnFein leader.

      And now SNP, repeat: Scotland will not be the collateral damage of Brexit. You are on your own England.

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